Laboratory-acquired infections and bio-incidents: References

Reviews
The most frequent laboratory-acquired infections:
Other infectious agents:
Non-infectious agents:


Reviews

Books

  • Collins CH (eds). Laboratory-acquired infections. History, incidences, causes and prevention. 2nd edition. Butterworths, 1998.
  • Harding LA & Brandt Byers K. Epidemiology of Laboratory-Associated Infections, Chapter 4, pp. 35-54, in Biological Safety, Principles and practices, Third Edition. Edited by Fleming DO and Hunt DL. ASM Press, American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, 2000.

Articles, reviews, letters on Bio-incidents, potential exposures, Laboratory-acquired infections: from 1953 to...

=> Opinions on "Influenza Virus Transmission between Ferrets" (LAIs related):

  • Fouchier RAM. Reply to “Comments on Fouchier’s Calculation of Risk and Elapsed Time for Escape of a Laboratory-Acquired Infection from His Laboratory”. mBio 2015; 6(2): e00407-15. doi:10.1128/mBio.00407-15.
  • Klotz LC. Comments on Fouchier’s Calculation of Risk and Elapsed Time for Escape of a Laboratory-Acquired Infection from His Laboratory. mBio 2015; 6(2): e00268-15. doi:10.1128/mBio.00268-15.
  • Lipsitch M, Inglesby TV. Reply to “Studies on Influenza Virus Transmission between Ferrets: the Public Health Risks Revisited”. mBio 2015; 6(1): e02560-14. doi:10.1128/mBio.02560-14.
  • Fouchier RAM. Studies on Influenza Virus Transmission between Ferrets: the Public Health Risks Revisited. mBio 2015; 6(1): e00041-15. doi:10.1128/mBio.00041-15.

=> Reviews on Bio-incidents and LAIs

  • Wurtz N., Papa A, Hukic M, Di Caro A, Leparc-Goffart I, Leroy E, Landini MP, Sekeyova Z, Dumler JS, Badescu D, Busquets N, Calistri A, Parolin C, Palu G, Christova I, Maurin M, La Scola B, Raoult. Survey of laboratory-acquired infections around the world in biosafety level 3 and 4 laboratories. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Aug;35(8):1247-58.
  • Coelho C, Garcia Diez J. Biological risks and laboratory-acquired infections: a reality that cannot be ignored in health technology. Frontier in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 2015;3: art 56. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2015.00056
  • Campbell MJ. Characterizing Accidents, Exposures, and Laboratory-acquired Infections Reported to the National Institutes of Health's Office of Biotechnology Activities (NIH/OBA) Division Under the NIH Guidelines for work with Recombinant DNA Materials from 1976-2010. Applied Biosafety 2015;20(1):12-26.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC report on the potential exposure to Anthrax. International Microbiology 2014; 17:119-129.
  • Silver S. Laboratory-acquired lethal infections by potential bioweapons pathogens including Ebola in 2014. FEMS Microbiology letters 2014; 362: 1-6.
  • Kozajda A, Brodka K, Szadowska-Stanczyk I. Factors influencing biosafety level and LAI among staff of medical laboratories. Med Pr 2014; 64(4):473-486.
  • Van Noorden R. Safety survey reveals lab risks. Questionnaire suggests researchers not as safe as they feel. Nature. 2013 ; 493:9-10.
  • Byers KB. Biosafety tips: Lessons Learned from Laboratory-acquired Salmonella Infections. Applied Biosafety 2012; 17 (3): 149-151.
  • Kozlovac JP. The need for professional society advocacy for a laboratory-acquired illness/incident reporting and analysis system. Applied Biosafety. 2012; 17(2): 56-58.
  • Hubad B, Lapanje A. Inadequate hospital ventilation system increases the risk of nosocomial Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Hosp Infect 2012; 80: 88-91.
  • Investigation update: Human Salmonella Typhimurium infections associated with exposure to clinical and teaching microbiology laboratories. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. January 17, 2012.
  • Singh K. It's time for a centralized registry of laboratory-acquired infections. Opinion. Nature. 2011;17(8): 919.
  • Pedrosa PBS, Cardoso TAO. Viral infections in workers in hospital and research laboratory settings: a comparative review of infection modes and respective biosafety aspects. Int J Infect Dis. 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2011.03.005.
  • Touche S, Bajolet O. Risques infectieux au laboratoire. Revue Francophone des Laboratoires. 2010;426: 65-70.
  • Singh K. Laboratory-Acquired Infections. Healthcare Epidemiology, CID. 2009; 49: 142-147.
  • Kimman TG, Smit E, Klein M. Evidence-based biosafety: a review of the principles and effectiveness of microbiological containment measures. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008; 21(3): 403-425.
  • Baron JB and Miller JM. Bacterial and fungal infections among diagnostic laboratory workers: evaluating the risks. Diag Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008; 60: 241-246.
  • Tarantola A, Abiteboul D, Rachline A. Infection risks following accidental exposure to blood or body fluids in health care workers: a review of pathogens transmitted in published cases. Am J Infect Control. 2006; 34(6):367-375.
  • Bavoil P. Federal indifference to laboratory-acquired infections. Letter to the editors. Applied Biosafety. 2005; (10(1):5-7.
  • Rusnak JM, Kortepeter MG, Ulrich R, Poli M, Boudreau E. Laboratory exposures to staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004; 10:1544-1549.
  • Rusnak JM, Kortepeter MG, Hawley RJ, Anderson AO, Boudreau E, Eitzen E. Risk of occupationally acquired illnesses from biological threat agents in unvaccinated laboratory workers. Biosec. and Bioter. 2004; 2:1-13.
  • Jagger J, Perry J, Parker G. Lab workers: small group, big risk. Nursing. 2003; 33:72.
  • Teyssou R. La prévention des risques infectieux au laboratoire de bactériologie. Revue Française des laboratoires. 2001; 335:57- 61.
  • Walker D and Campbell D. A survey of infections in United Kingdom laboratories, 1994-1995. J Clin Pathol 1999; 52: 415-418.
  • Sewell DL. Laboratory-associated infections and biosafety. Clin Microbiol Rev.1995; 8: 389-405.
  • Grist NR, Emslie JA.Association of Clinical Pathologists' surveys of infection in British clinical laboratories, 1970-1989. J Clin Pathol. 1994; 47(5):391-394.
  • Grist NR, Emslie JA. Infections in British clinical laboratories, 1988-1989. J Clin Pathol. 1991;44(8):667-669.
  • Miller CD, Songer JR, Sullivan JF. A twenty-five year review of laboratory acquired human infections at the National Animal Disease Center. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1987; 48: 271-275.
  • Grist NR, Emslie J. Infections in British clinical laboratories, 1982-3. J Clin Pathol. 1985; 38(7):721-725.
  • Jacobson JT, Orlob RB, Clayton JL. Infections acquired in clinical laboratories in Utah. J Clin Microbiol. 1985; 21(4): 486-489.
  • Pike RM. Laboratory-associated infections: incidence, fatalities, causes, and prevention. Annu Rev Microb. 1979; 33: 41-66.
  • Pike RM. Past and present hazards of working with infectious agents. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1978; 102: 333-336.
  • Harrington JM, Shannon HS. Incidence of tuberculosis, hepatitis, brucellosis and shigellosis in British medical laboratory workers. Br Med J. 1976; 1: 759-762.
  • Pike RM. Laboratory-associated infections. Summary and analysis of 3921 cases. Health Laboratory Science. 1976; 13:105-114.
  • Pike RM, Sulkin SE, Schulze ML. Continuing importance of laboratory-acquired infections. Am J Public Health Nations Helath. 1965; 55:190-199.
  • Torsten J. Laboratory infections with Coxsackie viruses. Archives of Virology 1953; 5(3): 250-263.

Most frequent reported laboratory-acquired infections

Brucellosis
One of the "top-ten" laboratory-acquired bacterial infections

  • Garofolo G, Fasanella A, Di Giannatale E, Platone I, Sacchini L, Persiani T, Boskani T, Rizzardi K, Wahab T. Cases of human brucellosis in Sweden linked to Middle East and Africa. BMC Res Notes 2016; 9:277. doi 10.1186/s13104-016-2074-7. One case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis is reported in this article.
  • Castrodale LJ, Raczniak GA, Rudolph KM, Chikoyak L, Cox RS, Franklin TL, Traxler RM, Guerra M. A case-study of implementation of improved strategies for prevention of laboratory-acquired brucellosis. Safety and Health at Work 2015; 6: 353-356
  • Dentinger CM, Jacob K, Lee LV, Mendez HA, Chotikanatis K, McDonough PL, Chico DM, De BK, Tiller RV, Traxler RM, Campagnolo ER, Schmitt D, Guerra MA, Slavinski SA. Human Brucella canis infection and subsequent laboratory exposures associated with a puppy, New York City, 2012. Zoonoses and Public Health. 2014;xx:1-8. doi: 10.1111/zph.12163
  • Calixto Rodrigues AL, Kneipp Lopes da Silva S, Alves Pinto BL, Braga da Silva J, Tupinambas U. Outbreak of Laboratory acquired Brucella abortus in Brazil: a case report. Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 2013; 46(6): 791-794.
  • Knudsen A, Kronborg G, Dahl Knudsen J, Lebech AM. Laboratory exposure to Brucella melitensis in Denmark: a prospective study. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2013.08.005.
  • Traxler RM, Lehman MW, Bosserman EA, Guerra MA, Smith TL. A Litterature Review of Laboratory-Acquired Brucellosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2013; published online ahead of print on 3 July. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00135-13.
  • Traxler RM, Guerra MA, Morrow MG, Haupt T, Saah JR et al. Review of Brucellosis from Laboratory Exposure in the United States, 2008-2011, and Improved Strategies for Disease Prevention. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2013; published online ahead of print on 3 July. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00813-13.
  • Sam IC, Karunakaran R, Kamarulzaman A et al. A large exposure to Brucella melitensis in a diagnostic laboratory. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2012; 80: 321-325.
  • Sayin-Kutlu S, Kutlu M, Ergonul O et al. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis in Turkey. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2012; 80: 326-330.
  • Eales KM, Norton RE, Keltheesan N. Brucellosis in Northern Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010; 83 (4): 876-878. One laboratory-acquired case reported in the paper.
  • Schulze zur Wiesch J, Wichmann D, Sobottka I, Rohde H, Schmoock G, Wernery R, Schmiedel S, Dieter Burchard G, Melzer F. Genomic tandem repeat analysis proves laboratory-acquired brucellosis in veterinary (Camel) diagnostic laboratory in the United Arab Emirates. Zoonoses Public Health.; 57: 315-317.
  • Wünschel M, Olszowsli AM, Weissgerber P, Wülker N, Kluba T. Chronic brucellosis: A rare cause of septic loosening of arthroplasties with high risk of laboratory-acquired infections. Z Orthop Unfall 2010; April 23.
  • Demirdal T, Demirturk N. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2008; 37 (1): 86-87.
  • Fabiensen C, Knudsen JD, Lebech AM. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis (article in Danish). Ugeskr Laeger. 2008 June 9; 170 (24): 2161.
  • Laboratory-Acquired Brucellosis. In 2006, two cases of brucellosis in microbiologists at two clinical laboratories were reported to state health departments in Indiana and Minnesota. MMWR, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. January 18, 2008.
  • Bouza E, Sanchez-Carrillo C, Hernangomez S, Gonzalez MJ, The spanish co-operative group for the study of laboratory-acquired brucellosis. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis: a spanish national survey. J Hosp Infect 2005; 61: 80-83.
  • Fiori PL, Mastrandrea S, Rappelli P, Cappuccinelli P. Brucella abortus infection acquired in microbiology laboratories. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38(5): 2005-2006.
  • Noviello S, Gallo R, Kelly M, Limberger RJ, DeAngelis K, Cain L, Wallace B, Dumas L. Laboratory-Acquired Brucellosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004; 10:1848-1850.
  • Yagupsky P, Peled N, Riesenberg K, Banai M. Exposure of hospital personnel to Brucella melitensis and occurence of laboratory-acquired disease in an endemic area. Scand J Infect Dis. 2000; 32: 31-35.
  • Zervos M, Bostic G. Exposure to brucella in the laboratory. Lancet 1997; 349: 651.
  • Arlett PR. A case of laboratory acquired brucellosis. British Medical Journal 1996; 313: 1130-1132.
  • Gruner E, Bernasconi E, Galeazzi RL, Buhl D, Heinzle R, Nadal D. Brucellosis: an occupational hazard for medical laboratory personnel. Report of five cases. Infection. 1994; 22(1): 33-36.
  • Martin-Mazuelos E, Nogales MC, Florez C, Gomez-Mateos JM, Lozano F, Sanchez A. Outbreak of Brucella melitensis among microbiology laboratory workers. J Clin Microbiol. 1994; 32(8): 2035-2036.
  • Luzzi GA, Brindle R, Sockett PN, Solera J, Klenerman P, Warrell DA. Brucellosis: imported and laboratory-acquired cases, and a overview of treatment trials. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1993; 87(2): 138-141.
  • Staskiewicz J, Lewis CM, Colville J, Zervos M, Band J. Outbreak of Brucella melitensis among microbiology workers in a community hospital. J Clin Microbiol 1991; 29(2): 287-290.
  • Al-Aska AK, Chagla AH. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis. J Hosp Infect 1989;14: 69-71.
  • Ollé-Goig JE, Canela-Soler J. An outbreak of Brucella melitensis infection by airborne transmission among laboratory workers. Am J Public Health. 1987; 77(3): 335-338.
  • Smith JA, Skidmore AG, Andersen RG. Brucellosis in a laboratory technologist. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1980; 122: 1231-1232.
  • Meyer KF, Eddie B. Laboratory infections due to Brucella. J Infect Dis. 1941; 68: 24-32.

Prevention of laboratory-acquired brucellosis

  • Robichaud S, Libman M, Behr M, Rubin E. Prevention of laboratory-acquired brucellosis. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38: e119-122.

Hepatitis
Hepatitis is one of the most frequent laboratory-acquided infections. It is a particular case because these blood-borne viruses are more likely to infect people working in serology or haematology laboratories than microbiologists. Hepatitis B virus has been responsible for most of the known LAIs. Since the vaccine has been available for both hepatitis A and B the number of laboratory-acquired hepatitis significantly decreased.

  • Robertson BH, Kuhnert WL. Hepatitis viruses - Prevention and Control in the Laboratory setting. Applied Biosafety. 2003; 8(1): 6-13.
  • Evans MR, Henderson DK, Bennett JE. Potential for laboratory exposures to biohazardous agents found in blood. AJPH. 1990;80(4):423-427.

Psittacosis
Infections of man from birds do not frequently occur, but psittacosis is not a so uncommon LAI.

  • Van Droogenbroeck C, Beeckman DS, Verminnen K, Marien M, Nauwynck H, Boesinghe Lde T, Vanrompay D. Simultaneous zoonotic transmission of Chlamydophila psittaci genotypes D, F and E/B to a veterinary scientist. Vet Microbiol. 2009; 135 (1-2): 78-81.
  • Schachter J, Arnstein P, Dawson CR, Hanna L, Thygeson P, Meyer KF. Human follicular conjunctivitis caused by infection with a psittacosis agent. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1968; 127(1): 292-295.
  • Biosafety recommendations for C. psittaci manipulation (diagnostic and research laboratories):
  • V Dickx, C Van Droogenbroeck, B Van Vaerenbergh, P Herman, L Braeckman, D Vanrompay. Chlamydia psittaci, Causative Agent of Avian Chlamydiosis and Human Psittacosis: Risk Assessment and Biosafety Recommendations. Applied Biosafety. 2012; 17(2): 85-88.

Q fever
Most reports concerning laboratory-acquired Q fever are dating from the 1950's. Most cases of LAI were observed among members of the US armed force after the second world war. Despite its high infectivity, Coxiella burnetii certainly reaches no more the second place in the "top ten" laboratory-acquired infections nowadays. A publication from Madariaga MG et al. (2003) presents C. burnetii as a biological weapon candidate and constitute an excellent summary about this micro-organism.

  • Madariaga MG, Rezai K, Trenholme GM, Weinstein RA. Q fever : a biological weapon in your backyard. Lancet, infectious diseases. 2003; 3: 709-721.
  • Hamadeh GN, Turner BW, Trible W Jr, Hoffmann BJ, Anderson RM. Laboratory outbreak of Q fever. J Fam Pract 1992; 35(6): 683-685.
  • Hall CJ, Richmond SJ, Caul EO, Pearce NH, Silver IA. Laboratory outbreak of Q fever acquired from sheep. Lancet. 1982 ;1(8279):1004-6.
  • Bayer RA. Q fever as an occupational illness at the national institutes of health, Public Health Reports. 1982; 97 : 58-60.
  • Johnson III, JE, Kadull PJ. Laboratory-acquired Q fever. A report of fifty cases. American Journal of Medicine 1966; 41(3):391-403.

Tuberculosis
M. tuberculosis complex is one of the most important life-threatening bacterial disease and remains a well characterised hazard in diagnostic laboratories as well as in R&D installations.

  • Belchior I, Seabra B, Duarte R. Primary inoculation skin tuberculosis by accidental needle stick. BMJ case reports 2011: DOI:10.1136/bcr.11.2010.3486.
  • Leyten EMS, Mulder B, Prins C, Weldingh K, Andersen P, Ottenhoff THM, van Dissel JT, Arend SM. Use of enzyme-linked immunospot assays with Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific peptides for diagnosis of recent infection with M. tuberculosis after accidental laboratory exposure. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44(3):1197-1201.
  • The Sunshine Project, News release: Faulty aerosol chamber infects three. 18 April 2005 (link). Three reported laboratory-acquired tuberculosis infections (work with aerosol chamber).
  • Menzies DA, Fanning A, Yuan L, Fitzgerald JM, Canadian Collaborative Group in Nocosomial Transmission of Tuberculosis. Factors associated with tuberculin conversion in Canadian microbiology and pathology workers. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2003; 167: 599-602.  
  • Kao AS, Ashford DA, McNeil MM, Warren NG, Good RC. Descriptive profile of tuberculin testing programs and laboratory-acquired tuberculosis infections in public health laboratories. J Clin Microbiol. 1997; 35 : 1847-1851.
  • Menzies DA, Fanning LY, Fitzerald M. Tuberculosis among health workers. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332: 92-98.
  • Peerbooms PGH, van Doornum GJJ et al. Laboratory-acquired tuberculosis. Lancet. 1995; 345:1311-1312.
  • Kao AS, Ashford DA, McNeil MM, Warren NG, Good RC. Descriptive profile of tuberculin skin testing programs and laboratory-acquired tuberculosis infections in public health laboratories. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1847-1851. 
  • Sharma VK, Kumar B, Radotra BD, Kaur S. Cutaneous inoculation tuberculosis in laboratory personnel. Int J Dermatol, 1990; 29 : 293-294.
  • Müller HE. Laboratory-acquired mycobacterial infection. Lancet. 1988; 2 : 331.
  • Saint-Paul M, Delplace Y, Tufel C, Cabasson GB, Cavieneaux A. Tuberculoses professionnelles dans les laboratoires de bactériologie. Arch Mal Prof Med Trav. 1972; 33: 305-309.
  • Reid DD. Incidence of tuberculosis among workers in medical laboratories. Brit Med J. 1957;2:10-14.

=> Additional information: Biosafety Recommendations for the Contained Use of M. tuberculosis Complex Isolates in Industrialized Countries link (PDF 264 kb)

    Tularaemia

    • Mailles A, Vaillant V. Bilan de 10 années de surveillance de la tularémie chez l'homme en France. 4 reported cases of laboratory-acquired tularemia (whole report in French, summary in English). Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Legal depot September 2013, ISSN: 1956-6956, ISBN-NET: 978-2-11-138342-5.
    • Lam ST, Sammons-Jackson W, Sherwood J, Ressner R. Laboratory-aquired tularemia successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. 2012; 20 (3): 204-207.
    • Tularemia, Laboratory-acquired - USA Maryland. Reported in "Science Insider", American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 4, 2009 (link).S
    • Barry MA. Report of pneumonic tularemia in three Boston university researchers. Communicable Disease Control, Boston Public Health Commission. March 28, 2005 (link to pdf report)
    • Tularemia Laboratory-Acquired (Promedmail - report1 - report2 - report3): 19 - 26 January 2005
    • Shapiro DS, Schwartz DR. Exposure of laboratory workers to Francisella tularensis despite a bioterrorism procedure. J Clin Microbiol. 2002; 40(6):2278-2281.
    • Overholt EL, Tigertt WD, Kadull PJ, Ward MK, Charkes ND, Rene RM, Salzam TE, Stephens M. An analysis of forty-two cases of laboratory-acquired tularemia. Treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics. Am J Med. 1961; 30:785-806.     
    • Charkes ND. Hemagglutination test in tularemia: results in 56 vaccinated persons with laboratory acquired infection. J Immunol. 1959 Aug; 83:213-20.       
    • Van Metre TE Jr, Kadull PJ. Laboratory-acquired tularemia in vaccinated individuals: a report of 62 cases. Ann Intern Med. 1959; 50(3):621-32.      

    Other infectious agents

    Burkholderia mallei

    • CDC, Laboratory-acquired human glanders - Maryland, May 2000. Morb. Mortal. Rep. 49: 532-535
    • Peacock SJ, Schweizer HP, Dance DAB, Smith TL, Gee JE, Wuthiekunan V, et al. Management of accidental laboratory exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 (link).

    Chikungunya

    • Tomori O, Monath TP, O'Connor EH. Arbovirus infections among laboratory personnel in Ibadan, Nigeria.American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1981; 30(4): 855-861.
    • Scherer WF, Eddy GA, Monath TP. Laboratory safety for arboviruses and certain other viruses of vertebrates. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1980; 29(6): 1359-1381.

    Clostridium difficile

    • Bouza E, Martin A, Van den Berg RJ, Kuijper EJ. Laboratory-acquired Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotype 027: a new risk for laboratory workers? Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47(11):1493-94.

    Corynebacterium diptheriae

    • Geiss HK, Kiehl W, Thilo W. A case report of laboratory-acquired diphteria. Euro Surveill. 1997: 2 (8): pii=130.

    Coxsackievirus

    • Langford MP, Anders EA, Burch MA. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: anti-coxsackievirus A24 variant secretory immunoglobulin A in acute and convalescent tear. Clinical Ophtalmology 2015; 9: 1665-1673.
    • Langford MP, Stanton GJ, Barber JC, Baron S. Early appearing anti-viral activity in human tears during a case of picornavirus epidemic conjunctivitis. J Infect Dis 1979; 139(6): 653-658.
    • Sasagawa A, Kono R, Konno K. Laboratory-acquired infections of the eye with AHC virus. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1976; 29(2): 95-97.
    • Torsten J. Laboratory infections with Coxsackie viruses. Archives of Virology 1953; 5(3): 250-263.
    • Shaw EW, Melnick JL, Curnen E.C Infection of laboratory workers with coxsackie viruses. Annals of Internal Medicine 1950; 33(1): 32-40.

    Dengue virus

    • Lee C, Jang EJ, Kwon D, Choi H, Park JVV, Bae GR. Laboratory-acquired dengue virus infection by needlestick injury: a case report, South Korea, 2014. Ann Occup Environ Med 2016, 28: 16. doi.org/10.1186/s40557-016-0104-5
    • Britton S, van den Hurk AF, Simmons, RJ et al. Laboratory-acquired Dengue virus infection - A case report. PLoS Negelcted Tropical Diseases. 2011; 5 (11): e1324.

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus (see also Ebola references webpage)

    • Pavlin BI. Calculation of incubation period and serial interval from multiple oubreaks of Marburg virus disease. BMC Research Notes. 2014; 7:906:1-6.
    • Günther S, Feldmann H, Geisbert T.W., Hensley LE, Rollin PE, Nichol ST, Ströher U, Artsob H, Peters CJ, Ksiazek TG, Becker S, ter Meulen J, Olschläger S, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Sudeck H, Burchard GD, Schmiedel S. Management of Accidental Exposure to Ebola Virus in the Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory, Hamburg,Germany. J. Inf. Dis. 2011; 204 (Suppl 3): 785-790.
    • Feldmann H. Are we any closer to combating Ebola infections? Lancet. 2010;375(9729):1850-1852. 
    • Kortepeter MG, Martin JW, Rusnak JM, Cieslak TJ, Warfield KL, Anderson EL, Ranadive MV. Managing Potential Laboratory Exposure to Ebola Virus by Using a Patient Biocontainment Care Unit1. Emer Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):881-887. 
    • Borisevich IV, Markin VA, Firsova IV, et al. Hemorrhagic (Marburg, Ebola, Lassa, and Bolivian) fevers: epidemiology, clinical pictures, and treatment. Voprosy Virusologii – Problems of Virology (Moscow). 2006;51(5):8–16 [Russian].
    • Akinfeyeva LA, Aksyonova OI, Vasilyevich IV, et al. A case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Infektsionnye Bolezni (Moscow). 2005;3(1):85–88 [Russian].
    • Stone R. Russian scientist dies after Ebola lab accident. Science 2004;304:1225.
    • Ebola, lab accident death - Russia (Siberia) Published Date: 2004-05-22 Archive Number: 20040522.1377
    • Ebola virus, laboratory accident - USA (Maryland) Published Date: 2004-02-20. Archive Number: 20040220.0550
    • Formenty P, Hatz, C, Le Guenno B, Stoll A, Rogenmoser P, Widmer A. Human infection due to Ebola virus, subtype Cote d'Ivoire: Clinical and biologic presentation. J Infect Dis. 1999;179(suppl. 1):S48-S53. 
    • Nikiforov W, Turovskii II, Kalinin PP, Akinfeeva LA, Kathova LR, Barmin VS, Riabchikova EI, Popkova NI, Shestopalov AM, Nazarov VP, Vedishev SV, Nemesov SV. A case of laboratory infection with Marburg fever. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1994: 3: 104-106.
    • Emond RTD, Evans B, Bowen ETW, Lloyd G. A case of Ebola virus infection. BMJ 1977; 2: 541-544.

    Escherichia coli O157:H7
    Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC), also denominated enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), were first identified as human pathogens in 1982, when serotype O157:H7 was associated with two outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis. Escherichia coli O157 is a biological agent class of risk 3* (normally non airborne-pathogen). This pathogen infects people mainly through ingestion.

    • E. coli O157 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) from the Office of Laboratory Security, Health Canada
    • Spina N, Zansky S, Dumas N, Kondracki S. Four laboratory-associated cases of infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43(6): 2938-2939.
    • A. Salerno, K. Meyers, K. McGowan, B. Kaplan. Hemolytic uremic syndrome in a child with laboratory-acquired Escherichia coli O157:H7. Journal of Pediatrics 2004; 145 (3): 412-414.
    • Coia JE.  Nosocomial and laboratory-acquired infection with Escherichia coli O157. J Hosp Infect 1998; 40:107-113.
    • Burnens AP, Binden R, Kaempf L. et al. A case of laboratory-acquired infection with Escherichia coli 0157:H7. Zbl Bakt 1993; 279: 512-517.
    • Cieslak PR, Barrett TJ, Griffin PL et al. Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from a manured garden. Lancet 1993; 342: 367.

    => The following authors suggest that airborne dispersion of E. coli O157 contributed to an outbreak.

    • Varma JK, Greene KD, Reller ME et al. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 infection following exposure to a contaminated building. JAMA 2003; 290: 2709-2712.

    Hantavirus
    Hantivirus is responsible for haemorragic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).

    • Israeli E. A hantavirus killed an israeli researcher: hazards while working with wild animals (article in Hebrew). Harefuah 2014; 153(8): 443-4, 499.
    • Shi X, McCaughey C, Elliott RM. Genetic characterisation of a hantavirus isolated from a laboratory-acquired infection. J Med Virol. 2003; 71(0): 105-109.
    • Wong TW, Chan YC, Yap EH, Joo YG, Lee HW, Lee PW, Yanagihara R, Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in laboratory rats and personnel. Int J Epidemiol. 1988; 17(4): 887-890.
    • Kawamata J, Yamanouchi T, Dohmae K, Miyamoto H, Takahaski M, Yamanishi K, Kurata T, Lee HW. Control of laboratory acquired hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Japan. Lab Anima Sci. 1987; 37(4): 431-436.
    • Lloyd G., Jones N. Infection of laboratory workers with hantavirus acquired from immunocytomas propagated in laboratory rats. J. Infec. 1986; 12(2): 117-125.

    Helicobacter pylori

    • Matysiak-Budnik T, Briet F, Heyman M, Mégraud F. Laboratory-acquired Helicobacter pylori infection. Lancet 1995; 346: 1489-1490.

    Herpesvirus simiae (herpes B virus)

    • Hummeler K, Davidson WL, Henle W, Laboccetta AC, Ruch HG. Encephalomyelitis due to infection with Herpesvirus simiae (herpes B virus); a report of two fatal, laboratory-acquired cases. NEJM. 1959; 261(2): 64-68.

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    HIV-1 and HIV-2 are bloodborne pathogens.

    • HIV Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) from the Office of Laboratory Security, Health Canada
    • Petrosillo N, Puro V, De Carli G, Ippolito G. Risks faced by laboratory workers in the AIDS era. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2001; 15: 243-248.
    • Eberle J, Habermann J, Gürtler LG. HIV-1 infection transmitted by serum droptlets into the eye: a case report. AIDS; 2000; 14(2): 2016.
    • Weiss SH, Goedert JJ, Gartner S, Popovic M, Waters D, Markham P, et al. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection among laboratory workers. Science 1988; 239(4835): 68-71.

    Leptospira

    • Gilks CF, Lambert HP, Broughton ES, Baker CC. Failure of penicillin prophylaxis in laboratory acquired leptospirosis. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1988; 64:236-238.

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    • Dykewicz CA, Dato VM, Fisher-Hoch SP, Howarth MV, Perez-Oronoz GI, Ostroff SM, Gary H Jr, Schonberger LB, McCormick JB. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis outbreak associated with nude mice in a research institute. JAMA. 1992; 267(10): 1349-1353.
    • Bowen GS, Calisher CH, Winkler WG, Kraus AL, Fowler EH, Garman RH, Fraser DW, Hinman AR. Laboratory studies of a Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus outbreak in man and laboratory animals. Am J Epidemiol. 1975; 102(3): 233-240.
    • Hinman AR, Fraser DW, Douglas RG, Bowen GS, Kraus AL, Winkler WG, Rhodes WW. Outbreak of Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections in medical center personnel. Am J Epidemiol. 1975; 101(2): 103-110.

    MRSA Staphylococcus aureus

    • Duman Y, Yakupogullari Y, Otlu B, Tekerekoglu MS. Laboratory-acquired skin infections in a clinical microbiologist: is wearing only gloves really safe? Am J of Inf Control 2016; doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2016.01.016
    • Wagenvoort JHT, De Brauwer EIGB, Gronenschild JMH, Toenbreker HMJ, Bonnemayers GPM, Bilkert-Mooiman MAJ. Laboratory-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in two microbiology laboratory technicians. Eur J Clin Microbiol & Infectious Diseases 2006; July 25(7) : 470-472.
    • Gosbell IB, Mercer JL, Neville SA. Laboratory-acquired EMRSA-15 infection. J Hosp. Infection. 2003; 54: 324-325.

    Neisseria meningitidis

    • Wever PC, Hodges AJ. The first World War years of Sydney Domville Rowland: an early case of possible laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease. J R Army Med Corps 2016, Apr 15, pii: jramc-2016-000634
    • Sheets CD, Harriman K, Zipprich J, Louie JK, Probert WS, Horowitz M, Prudhomme JC, Gold D, Mayer L. Fatal Meningococcal Disease in a Laboratory Woker - California 2012.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014, September 5; 63(35): 770-772.
    • Athlin S, Vikerfors T, Fredlund H, Olcén P. Atypical clinical presentation of laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease. Scand J Inf Dis. 2007; 29: 911-921.
    • Kessler AT, Stephens DS, Somani J. Laboratory-acquired serogroup A meningococcal meningitis. J Occup Health 2007; 49: 399-401.
    • Sejvar JJ, Johnson D, Popovic T, Miller JM, Downes F, Somsel P, Weyant R, Stephens DS, Perkins BA, Rosenstein NE. Assessing the risk of laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2005; 43(9): 4811-4814.
    • Christen G, Tagan D. Laboratory-acquired Neisseria meningitidis infection (case report in french). Med Mal Infect. 2004; 34 (3): 137-138. Laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease. MMWR, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. February 22, 2002
    • Boutet R, Stuart JM, Kaczmarski EB, Gray SJ, Jones DM, Andrews N. Risk of laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease. J Hosp Infect. 2001; 49(4): 282-284.
    • Guibourdenche M, Darchis JP, Boisivon A, Collatz E, Riou JY. Enzyme electrophoresis, sero- and subtyping, and outer membrane protein characterization of two Neisseria meningitidis strains involved in laboratory-acquired infections. J Clin Microbiol.1994; 32(3): 701-704.
    • Paradis JF, Grimard D. Laboratory-acquired invasive meningococcus - Quebec. Can Commun Dis Rep. 1994 30; 20(2): 12-4.
    • Laboratory-acquired meningococcal infection. Commun Dis Rep CDR Wkly. 1992 Feb 28; 2(9): 39.
    • Laboratory-acquired meningococcemia, California and Massachusetts. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1991 Jan 25; 40(3): 46-47.
    • Bhatti AR, DiNinno VL, Ashton FE, White LA. A laboratory-acquired infection with Neisseria meningitidis. J Infect. 1982; 4(3): 247-52.

    Parasites

    • Felinto de Brito ME, Andrade MS, de Almeida EL, Medeiros AC, Werkhäuser RP et al. Occupationally acquired american cutaneous leishmaniasis. Case Rep Dermatol Med. 2012; Epub Nov 28. DOI: 10.1155/2012/279517.
    • Kinoshita-Yanaga AT, de Ornelas Toledo MJ, Marques de Araujo S, Vier BP, Gomes ML. Accidental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi follow-up by the polymerase chain reaction: case report. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo. 2009; 51(5): 295-298.
    • Herwaldt BL. Review. Laboratory-acquired parasitic infections from accidental exposures. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001; 659-688.
    • Receveur MC, Le Bras M, Vingendeau P. Laboratory-acquired gambian trypanosomiasis. NEJM. 1993; 329 (3): 209-210.
    • Herwaldt BL, Juranek DD. Laboratory-acquired malaria, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, and toxoplasmosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1993; 48(3): 313-323.
    • Hanson WL, Devlin RF, Roberson EL. Immunoglobulin levels in a laboratory acquired case of human Chaga's disease. Journal of Parasitology 1974; 60(3):532-533.

    Poliovirus

    • A wild-type 1 strain used for IPV production was documented as being transmitted from a worker in a vaccine production facility to his young son: Mulders MN, Reimerink JHJ, Koopmans MPG, van Loon AM, van der Avoort HGAM. Genetic analysis of wild type poliovirus importation into the Netherlands (1979-1995). Journal of Infectious Diseases 1997; 176: 617-24.
    • In another incident a child was reported to have been infected with a prototype strain of type 3 commonly used in laboratories for research and IPV vaccine production. The source of this infection was not determined (found in WHO global action plan for laboratory containment of wild polioviruses, Second edition: WHO/V&B/03.11)
    • Miller BM et al. Laboratory safety: principles and practices. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology 1986, p. 322.
    • Beller K. Laboratoriumsinfektion mit dem Lansing-Virus. Zbl Bakt I Abt Orig 1949; 153: 269-273
    • Wenner HP, Paul JR. Fatal infection with poliomyelitis virus in a laboratory technician. Am J Med Sci 1947; 213: 9-1
    • Gear JHS, Rodger LM. Poliomyelitis in northern Rhodesia with special reference to an outbreak occurring on the Roan Antelope Copper Mine, Luanshya in 1946. South African Medical Journal 1946; 20: 670-3.
    • Sabin AB, Ward R. Poliomyelitis in a laboratory worker exposed to the virus. Science 1941; 94: 113-114

    => More information about the poliovirus manipulation and containment measures for the diagnostic, research laboratories and production facilities follow this link

      Poxviridae (Chordopoxvirinae), Orthopoxvirus genus

      - Vaccinia virus

      • Hsu CH, Farland J,  Winters T, Gunn J, Caron D,  Evans J, Osadebe L, Bethune L, McCollum AM, Patel N, Wilkins K, Davidson W, Petersen B, Barry MA. Laboratory-Acquired Vaccinia Virus Infection in a Recently Immunized Person — Massachusetts, 2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015, May 1; 64(16);435-4382015.
      • Korioth-Schmitz B, Affeln D, Simon SL, Decaneas WM, Schweon GB, Wong M, Gardner A. Vaccinia Virus - Laboratory Tool with a Risk of Laboratory-acquired Infection. Applied Biosafety 2015;20(1):6-11.
      • Wei Q, Jiang MN, Han J, Wang ZJ. Immune Control Strategies for Vaccinia Virus-related Laboratory-acquired infections. Biomed Environ Sci 2014;27(2):142-146.
      • Riyesh T, Karuppusamy S, Bera BC, Barua S, Virmani N et al. Laboratory-acquired Buffalopox Virus Infection, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2014; 20(2):325-326.
      • Costa GB, Moreno EC, Trindade GDS, Studies Group in Bovine Vaccinia. Neutralizing anitbodies associated with exposure factors to Orthopoxvirus in laboratory workers. Vaccine. 2013; 31:4706-4709.
      • MacNeil A, Reynolds MG, Damon IK. Risks associated with vaccinia virus in the laboratory. Virology. Dec 30, 2008.
      • Laboratory-Acquired Vaccinia Exposures and Infections, United States, 2005 - 2007. MMWR, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 18, 2008.
      • Lewis FMT, Chernak E, Goldman E, Li Y, Karem K, Damon IK, Henkel R, Newbern EC, Ross P, Johnson CC. Ocular Vaccinia Infection in Laboratory Worker, Philadelphia 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006; 12: 134-137.
      • Wlodaver CG, Palumbo GJ, Waner JL. Laboratory-acquired vaccinia infection. J. Clin. Virol. 2004; 29 (3), 167-170.
      • Moussatché N, Tuyama M, Kato SE, Castro AP, Njaine B, Peralta RH, Peralta JM, Damaso CR, Barroso PF. Accidental infection of laboratory worker with vaccinia virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003; 9(6): 724-726.
      • Loeb M, Zando I, Orvidas MC, Bialachowski A, Groves D, Mahoney J. Laboratory-acquired vaccinia infection. Can. Comm. Dis. Rep. 2003; 29 (15), 134-136. Also referenced in: Laboratory-Acquired vaccinia infection (Public Health Agency of Canada): 1 August 2003.
      • Mempel M, Isa G, Klugbauer N, Meyer H, Wildi G, Ring J, Hofmann F, Hofmann H. Laboratory acquired infection with recombinant vaccinia virus containing an immunomodulating construct. J Invest Dermatol. 2003; 120(3):356-358.
      • Openshaw PJ, Alwan WH, Cherrie AH, Record FM. Accidental infections of laboratory worker with recombinant vaccinia virus. Lancet. 1991; 338 (8764), 459.
      • Jones L, Ristow S, Yilma T, Moss B. Accidental human vaccination with vaccinia virus expressing nucleoprotein gene. Nature. 1986; 319 (6054), 543.

      - Cowpox virus

      • McCollum AM, Austin C, Nawrocki J, Howland J, Pryde J, Vaid A et al. Investigation of the first laboratory-acquired human cowpox virus infection in the United States. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012; Advance Access Published May 9. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jis302.
      • Cowpox, Laboratory infection. One reported case in USA (Georgia). Promedmail report: February 9, 2011.

      - Smallpox

      • Shooter RA. Report of the investigation into the cause of the 1978 Birmingham Smallpox Occurence, London: H.M. Stationaery Office, 1980: 236.

      Rabies virus

      • Collins CH, Kennedy DA. Laboratory acquired infections. Laboratory acquired infections: History, incidence, causes and prevention (4th ed., pp. 28) 1999, London, UK: Buttersworth.
      • Anderson LJ, Nicholson KG, Tauxe RV, Winklr WG/ Human rabies in the United States, 1960 to 1979: epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention. Annals of Internal Medicine 1984; 100(5):728-735.
      • Rabies in a laboratory worker New York. MMWR, Center for Disease Control. 1977; 26(22): 183-184.
      • Winkler WG. Airborne rabies transmission in a laboratory worker. JAMA 1973; 226(10): 1219-1221.

      Sabia virus

      • Barry M, Russi M, Amstrong L. Geller D, Tesh R, Dembry L, Gonzalez JP, Khan AS, Peter CJ. Brief Report: Treatment of a laboratory-acquired sabia virus infection. NEJM. 1995; 333 (5): 294-296.

      Salmonella, Shigella

      Among the enteric pathogens Salmonella typhi is one of the most hazardous agent. Laboratory-acquired salmonellosis other than typhoid fever are not widely reported (mild nature of the disease).

      • Alexander DC, Fitzgerald SF, De Paulo R, Kitzul R, Daku D, Levett PN, Cameron AD. Laboratorium-Acquired Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Exposed by Whole Genome Sequencing. J Clin Microbiol 2015; pii: JCM 02720-15 (Epub ahead of print).
      • Barker A, Duster M, Van Hoof S, Safdar N. Nontyphoidal Salmonella: An occupational Hazard for Clinical Laboratory Workers. Applied Biosafety 2015;20(2):72-74.
      • Salmonella Typhimurium infections associated with a community college microbiology laboratory - Maine, 2013. MWR, CDC. Nov 1, 2013.
      • Byers KB. Biosafety tips: Lessons Learned from Laboratory-acquired Salmonella Infections. Applied Biosafety 2012; 17 (3): 149-151.
      • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Investigation update: Human Salmonella Typhimurium infections associated with exposure to clinical and teaching microbiology laboratories . January 17, 2012.
      • De Schrijver K, Lemmens A, Bertrand S, Collard JM, Eilers K. Een laboratoriuminfectie met Shigella sonnei gevolgd door een cluster van secundaire infecties. Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 2007; 63 (14-15): 686-690. Available in Dutch only. (Abstract in English: Outbreak of Shigella sonnei in a clinical microbiology laboratory with secondary infections in the community).
      • Salmonella Serotype enteritidis Infections Among Workers Producing Poultry Vaccine, Maine. November - December 2006. Morbidity and MWR, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). August 31, 2007, 56(34);877-879.
      • Ashdown L, Cassidy J. Successive Salmonella give and Salmonella Typhi infections, laboratory-acquired. Pathology. 1991: 23(3): 233-234.
      • Steckelberg JM, Terrell CL, Edson RS. Laboratory-acquired Salmonella thyphimurium enteritis: Association with erythema nodosum and reactive arthritis. American Journal of Medicine 1988; 85(5): 705-707.
      • Blaser MJ, Lofgren JP. Fatal salmonellosis originating in a clinical microbiology laboratory. J Clin Microbiol 1981;13(5): 855-858.
      • Holmes MB, Johnson DL, Fiumara NJ, McCormack WM. Acquisition of typhoid fever from proficiency-testing specimens. N Engl J Med 1980; 303(9): 519-521.
      • Blaser MJ, Hickman FW, Farmer JJ, Brenner DJ, Balows A, Feldman RA. Salmonella Typhi: the laboratory as a reservoir of infection. J Infect Dis. 1980; 142: 934-938.

      Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus
      The responsible agent for SARS is a coronavirus (Class of Risk or Risk group 3 human pathogen).

      • Lim PL, Kurup A, Gopalakrishna G et al., Laboratory-acquired severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 1740-1745.
      • Singapore : a single reported case (WHO link)
      • Taiwan : a single reported suspected case (WHO link)

      These two reported cases of laboratory-acquired SARS were senior scientists. Both cases were confirmed.

      => More information about the SARS-Coronavirus manipulation and containment measures for the diagnostic and research laboratories follow this link

      Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)

      • Sotir M, Switzer W, Schable C, Schmitt J, Vitek C, Khabbaz RF. Risk of occupationnal exposure to potentially infectious nonhuman primate materials and to simian immunodeficiency virus. J Med Primatol. 1997; 26: 233-240.
      • Khabbaz RF, Heneine WM, George JR, Parekh B, Rowe T, Woods T, Switzer WM, McLure HM, Murphey-Corb M, Folks TM. Brief report: Infection of a laboratory worker with simian immunodefficiency virus. NEJM. 1994;330 (3): 172-177.
      • Khabbaz RF, Rowe T, Murphey-Corb M, Heneine WM, Schable CA, George JR, Pau CP, Parekh B, Lairmore MD, Curran JW et al. Simian immunodeficiency virus needlestick accident in a laboratory worker. Lancet. 1992; 340: 271-273.

      Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)

      • Avsic-Zupanc T, Poljak M, Maticic M et al. Laboratoy acquired tick-borne meningoencephalitis: characterisation of virus strains. Clin Diagn Virol. 1995; 4: 51-59.

      Vibrio cholerae

      • Huhulescu S, Leither E, Feierl G, Allerberger F. Laboratory-acquired Vibrio cholerae O1 infection in Austria, 2008. Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 1303-1304.
      • Sheehy TW, Sprinz H, Augerson WS, Formal SB. Laboratory Vibrio cholerae infection in the United States. JAMA 1966: 197: 99-104.

      West Nile Virus

      • McKellar DR, Conway MJ. Safe Handling of West Nile Virus in the insectary. Chapter 12, pp. 143-150. In, Colpitts TM (ed.), West Nile Virus: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1435, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-3670-0_12, © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016. This chapter includes a review of case reports of infected laboratory workers with members of the Flaviviridae.
      • Venter M, Steyl J, Human S, Weyer J, Zaayman D, Blumberg L, et al. Transmission of West Nile Virus during horse autopsy [letter]. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2010.
      • Venter M, Burt FJ, Blumberg L, Fickl H, Paweska J, Swanepoel, R. Cytokine induction after laboratory-acquired West Nile Virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360 (12): 1260-2.
      • Laboratory-Acquired West Nile Virus Infections (USA), MMWR, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 5, 2002

      Yersinia pestis

      • Frank KM, Shieh WJ. Investigation of a Researcher's Death Due to Septicemic plague. NEJM 2011; 364(26):2563-64.
      • Fatal Laboratory-Acquired Infection with an Attenuated Yersinia pestis Strain. USA (Chicago, Illinois), 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. February 25, 2011.

      Genetically modified organisms

      • Lewis FMT, Chernak E, Goldman E, Li Y, Karem K, Damon IK, Henkel R, Newbern EC, Ross P, Johnson CC. Ocular Vaccinia Infection in Laboratory Worker, Philadelphia 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006; 12: 134-137.
      • Mempel M, Isa G, Klugbauer N, Meyer H, Wildi G, Ring J, Hofmann F, Hofmann H. Laboratory acquired infection with recombinant vaccinia virus containing an immunomodulating construct. J Invest Dermatol. 2003; 120(3):356-358.
      • Openshaw PJ, Alwan WH, Cherrie AH, Record FM. Accidental infections of laboratory worker with recombinant vaccinia virus. Lancet. 1991; 338 (8764), 459.
      • Jones L, Ristow S, Yilma T, Moss B. Accidental human vaccination with vaccinia virus expressing nucleoprotein gene. Nature. 1986; 319 (6054), 543.

      Non infectious agents

      Malignant cells

      • Lazebnik Y, Parris GE. Comments on: "Guidelines for the use of cell lines in biomedical research": human-to-human cancer transmision as a laboratory safety concern. British Journal of Cancer 2015; 112:1976-1977.
      • Not laboratory-acquired but worth mentioning: Gärtner HV, Seidi C, Luckenbach C, Schumm G, Seifried E, Ritter H, Bültmann B. Genetic analysis of a sarcoma accidentally transplanted from a patient to a surgeon. NEJM. 1996;335(20):1494-1496.
      • Gugel EA, Sanders ME. Correspondence. Needle-stick transmission of human colonic adenocarcinoma. NEJM. 1986; 315: 1487.
      • Nadler SH, Moore GE. Immunotherapy of malignant disease. ArchSurg 1969;99:376-81.
      • Scanlon EF, Hawkins RA, Fox WW, Smith WS. Fatal homotransplanted melanoma: a case report. Cancer 1965;18:782-9.
      • Southam CM. Homotransplantation of human cell lines. Bull N Y AcadMed 1958;34:416-23.

      => Additional information: Biosafety Recommendations for the Contained Use of Animal and human cell cultures link